Bibliography: 连瑞枝 (Lian Ruizhi)


僧侣士人土官: 明朝统治下的西南人群与历史


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A most interesting book about the transformation of the SW during the Ming. 

Buddhist Temples and Ancestral Halls: The Reconstruction of Native Official Rituals in Western Yunnan

The Reconstruction of Native Official Rituals in Western Yunnan


Abstract: In the process of abolishing the native officialdoms of southwest China, the Ming court justified its actions by citing violations of ethical and ritual principles. During the Zhengtong 正統 period, offices of native officials in Heqing 鶴慶 were abolished and replaced with an office for centrally appointed imperial officials. These imperial officials turned Buddhist temples into Confucian schools and attacked local beliefs regarding living Buddhas. At the same time, local Confucian scholars advocated orthodox ritual in the name of doing away with improper ritual practice. In response, nearby native officials began cautiously handling political issues, and sought to legitimize the foundations for their status by conducting rituals in the classical Confucian tradition. The author examines the history of Lijiang 麗江 and Menghua 蒙化 Prefectures in Yunnan 雲南 and discusses how their native officials used the statuses of ancient nobles as they sought to establish Confucian rituals and temples corresponding to their status within the Ming bureaucracy. Several strategies are identified, including (a) building Buddhist temples, ancestral halls, and official shrines; (b) transforming mythical figures into protective deities by creating mountain and river rituals that conformed to ritual orthodoxy; and (c) establishing official genealogies and using textual methods to incorporate clan myths and legendary lineages into orthodox historical narratives, thereby strengthening the superiority of border native official lineages. By analyzing a series of actions of native officials in this process, the author explores the cultural strategies adopted by native officials to safeguard their prestige and local interests.

王權, 觀音與妙香古國: 十至十五世紀雲南洱海地區的傳說與歷史



English Title: King Power, Avalokitesvara and the Ancient Country of Miaoxiang: Legends and History of the Erhai Region in Yunnan from the Tenth to fifteenth centuries, Lian Ruizhi's PhD diss.