Resources for learning the Bai Language.


Book cover for 白汉词典

Bai-Chinese dictionary, from the 1980s, Jianchuan dialect.


A thematically ordered dictionary of Bai terms, with both Chinese and English translations. Jianchuan dialect.


Book cover for 白语大理方言基本教程

A grammar, textbook and dictionary, perhaps the most comprehensive and useful book for studying the Bai language.


Book cover for 白语366据会话句

Multi-lingual book for learning the Bai language, 366 example sentences.


Book cover for 白语简志

An old style introduction to the Bai language, using an older transcription.

C. P. Fitzgerald:

The Tower of Five Glories - A Study of the Min Chia of Ta Li, Yunnan


Book cover for 汉白语会话手册

Sample Bai-Chinese sentences for learning Bai language.


Book cover for 汉白新词术语集

A dictionary of contemporary Bai terms, mostly derived from Chinese.

Terrien de Lacouperie:

The Languages of China Before the Chinese

Terrien de Lacouperie was an early comparative linguist with a keen interest in Chinese civilization. This book is, with all its flaws, an important document on early non-Chinese language spoken in China.

The Strata of Bai

Abstract: This paper recognizes four strata of Chinese loanwords in the Bai lexicon: two (called A1 and A2) for the old layer, and two (B1 and B2) are recent. The sound correspondences with Chinese are presented for each layer. The indigenous layer is not Chinese and shows connections with proto-Loloish as reconstructed by Bradley. each item on a Swadesh-100 word list is discussed. It is argued that the Bai numerals from '1' to '10' are early loans from Chinese, to the exception of colloqiuial forms for '1' and '2', which relate to Tibeto-Burman.

Yeon-Ju Lee and Laurent Sagart:

No Limits to Borrowing: The Case of Bai and Chinese

The Case of Bai and Chinese

The classification of the Bai Language within the Sino-Tibetan languages remains contentious, but it is obvious that Bai has over time incorporated a great number of Chinese loanwords. This paper works on the assumption that the two elements of disyllabic loanwords will have entered the Bai language at the same time to stratify the adoption of loanwords into several time periods.

Wang Feng:

On the genetic position of the Bai language

Abstract: Different proposals on the genetic relationship of the Bai language in the past century are reviewed in this article, as well as the methodologies of genetic classification. In light of some new data on the Bai dialects and new hypotheses on the genetic classification of Sino-Tibetan languages, this article calls attention to the necessity for the reconstruction of Proto- Bai and shows that some proposals are invalid from a taxonomie viewpoint


Book cover for 学前教材

First in a set of two preschool books for bilingual education in Bai in Jianchuan county.


Book cover for 学前教材

Second in a set of two preschool books for bilingual education in Bai in Jianchuan county.

张锡禄 (Zhang Xilu):


A scholarly work analysing the historical documents written in Chinese to express the Bai language.